By Attracta Ingram
Rights are uncomplicated construction blocks of the modern country, but their rigorous justification is hard. This ebook offers a radical research of this primary subject, and demanding situations the orthodox view that rights are one of those estate declare in one's physique. Drawing at the culture of the social agreement in addition to the wealth of contemporary paintings in political thought, Ingram conceives of rights as one of those political declare, and indicates how they are often justified in a fashion fairly fitted to the pluralistic nature of latest liberal society.
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325; sect. 135, p. 403. 62 See Waldron, Private Property, 177–8. 63 And the same sort of analogy might be invoked to allege social ownership of talents under conditions which allow society as a whole to beneﬁt from their development and exercise. Of course, less radical versions of self-ownership can be constructed by varying the package of incidents. One example, a self-ownership which does not include the right to bequeath the product of one's own activities, has been mentioned above. Another possibility is a self-ownership that includes the incidents of full liberal ownership except for the right to exploit one's talents by selling their use to the highest bidder.
39 And in a striking repetition H. L. A. 42 Despite the vintage and contemporary standing of the principle of self-ownership, it is, I believe, a serious error to identify right-holding with ownership. Right-holding revolves round the importance of certain moral capacities to frame and execute one's own plan of life. It is related to being in command of one's own life and so with the idea of being a master or dominus which, historically, goes with being the overlord of property. But the identiﬁcation of dominion and ownership is contingent.
In effect, this gives others a claim on, or property in, some of the beneﬁts of my talents. But however small the extent of claims on my services arising from the exercise of my talents, other than claims I have freely contracted, the result is that I am to that extent in the power of others. Although they cannot conscript my labour, they can stop me charging what the market will bear for my services (by placing a proportional tax on earnings or by some more direct interference with market mechanisms) and in that way give me no alternative but to labour for them if I labour for myself.
A Political Theory of Rights by Attracta Ingram