# New PDF release: A First Course on Time Series Analysis Examples with SAS By Falk M.

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TEMPLT causes SAS to take the standard template catalog. The TEMPLATE statement selects a template from this catalog, which puts three graphics one below the other. The TREPLAY statement connects the defined areas and the plots of the the graphics catalog. GPLOT, GPLOT1 and GPLOT2 are the graphical outputs in the chronological order of the GPLOT procedure. The DELETE statement after RUN deletes all entries in the input graphics catalog. Note that SAS by default prints borders, in order to separate the different plots.

And γ(−s) = γ(s). In particular we obtain γ(0) = σ 2 /(1 − a2 ) and thus, the autocorrelation function of (Yt ) is given by ρ(s) = a|s| , s ∈ Z. The autocorrelation function of an AR(1)-process Yt = aYt−1 + εt with |a| < 1 therefore decreases at an exponential rate. Its sign is alternating if a ∈ (−1, 0). 56 Chapter 2. 1. Autocorrelation functions of AR(1)-processes Yt = aYt−1 + εt with different values of a. 2 Moving Averages and Autoregressive Processes 57 PROC GPLOT DATA = data1 ; PLOT rho * s = a / HAXIS = AXIS1 VAXIS = AXIS2 LEGEND = LEGEND1 VREF =0; RUN ; QUIT ; ✝ ✡ The data step evaluates rho for three different values of a and the range of s from 0 to 20 using two loops.

N, is the difference filter of order p. The difference filter of second order has, for example, weights a0 = 1, a1 = −2, a2 = 1 ∆2 Yt = ∆Yt − ∆Yt−1 = Yt − Yt−1 − Yt−1 + Yt−2 = Yt − 2Yt−1 + Yt−2 . p If a time series Yt has a polynomial trend Tt = k=0 ck tk for some constants ck , then the difference filter ∆p Yt of order p removes this trend up to a constant. Time series in economics often have a trend function that can be removed by a first or second order difference filter. 5. (Electricity Data).